DNA and RNA
DNA is an abbreviation for Deoxyribonucleic Acid. This material is what is responsible for transferring genetic information in cells that accounts for the different traits that organisms can take on. Several scientists have worked to do research on the subject and several did the first work to start out the field.
Griffith did experiments with the first vaccinations and was trying to find a way to create a vaccine. He worked with two types of bacteria of the same species: Smooth and rough. He followed the following steps while experimenting:
Because of these findings, Griffith concluded that something passed from the dead smooth bacteria into the live rough bacteria that made them deadly to the mice. He called this phenomenon "transformation."
Avery was responsible for determining that it was the DNA and not the protein that determines the traits of organisms and transmits genetic information.
Hershey and Chase
Hershey and Chase were a pair of scientists that tried to study genetics through the use of bacteriophages. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. They used radioactive DNA to trace its progress from the viruses to the bacteria. They found that when they made the protein radioactive, it was not passed on but when they made the DNA radioactive, it was passed on. Because of this, they were able to conclude that the DNA was the material that was passed on and not the protein.
Owen Chargaff was the scientist who discovered the rules that determine what bases bond to each other. Thus, when explaining these things, the term "Chargaff's Rules" can be used.
RNA is a chemical substance similar to DNA that functions to help produce proteins in cells. Several similarities and differences exist between RNA and DNA as shown blow:
|Uses Deoxyribose as the sugar for the backbone.||Uses Ribose as the sugar for the backbone.|
|Has two strands of genetic material||Has one or no strands of genetic material. mRNA has one strand while tRNA and rRNA have different forms that don not consist of strands.|
|Uses the bases A, T, C, and G.||Uses the bases A, U, C, and G.|